Why are rainclouds dark? They’re in a bad mood dude. Clouds have water droplets or ice crystals. They scatter all colors of sunlight equally. That’s why they look white. Now, check this guy. He ain’t no normal cloud. He’s big and thick. Mr. Raincloud. Water droplets in the cloud’s upper part, scatter most of the sunlight. Lower part doesn’t get enough light to scatter to our eyes. That’s why rainclouds look dark when we see from below. Topic: Photosynthesis and transpiration. Why is the upper surface of a leaf more green and shiny than the lower surface? Yes, it is. You don’t believe me? Why don’t you check it? The upper surface of a leaf is more green and shiny. While, the lower surface is comparatively less green and shiny. See, I told you. Do you know why? Okay. Let me tell you. You must be aware that chlorophyll. Which helps the plant to prepare food, is responsible for the green color of the leaves. But why is the upper surface more green than the lower surface? This is because the upper surface of a leaf is more exposed to the sun. As compared to the lower surface. Hence, to trap maximum sunlight. There is more chlorophyll on the upper surface as compared to the lower surface. Hey. You forgot. You also wanted to know why is the upper surface of the leaf shinier, right? It is due to the process called transpiration. Transpiration is the loss of water from leaves, stems, etc. in the form of water vapor. Now, to make sure that the plant does not lose a lot of water. The leaves are covered with a shiny, waxy coating called a cuticle. But being more exposed to the sun, the upper surface will tend to lose more water. Therefore, The upper surface of the leaf is covered with a thicker cuticle as compared to the lower surface. Hence, the upper surface of the leaf is shinier than the lower surface. Topic: Earthquakes. What causes earthquakes? I, me and myself. Yes. You show off. An earthquake is violent shaking of the earth’s crust. The earth’s crust is a hard outer covering made up of many pieces called tectonic plates. These plates are always moving. However, the motion is very slow. In a year, they move only 2 to 5 cm. My hair grows faster than their movements. Absolutely. Mostly when these tectonic plates move, they brush against each other without causing great damage. However, sometimes they get stuck and cannot easily slide against each other. But the plates still keep pushing, thus creating pressure. Eventually, The pressure builds up so much that one of the plates suddenly moves above the other. Or they may crash into each other, causing the crust to shake violently. Thus creating an earthquake. What is a tardigrade? I don’t No. A tardigrade is one of the smallest animals. It can grow only about 1 millimeter or less in length. However, it is the toughest animal in the whole world. It cannot be tougher than me. Alright. Now listen. Scientists say that tardigrades can survive in extremely inhospitable environments. But how? When the environment is inhospitable, the tardigrades enter a state called cryptobiosis. In cryptobiosis, they curl up into a ball like structure called tun. All their metabolic processes almost stop. In this state, Tardigrades can survive in about minus 459 degrees Fahrenheit and even in about 300 degrees Fahrenheit. They can live deep in the oceans and withstand the huge pressure of water. They can even survive in the vacuum of space and can withstand radiation. Later, when the conditions are stable, they again come back to their normal form. Are preservatives bad for you? I don’t know what they are. So, they must be good for me. No. Wait. I’ll explain. A preservative is a substance added to foods, cosmetics, medicines, etc. To prevent them from spoiling. For example, preservatives like salt and sugar prevent the growth of harmful microbes in foods. Thus preventing them from spoiling. However, A high amount of salt and sugar can increase the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart diseases, etc. Some food items even have preservatives like benzoic acid to inhibit the growth of harmful microbes. But benzoic acid is said to cause hyperactivity in children, asthma, etc. Sorbic acid which is used in cosmetics can cause skin irritation. In people suffering from asthma, Preservatives like sulfites can cause very serious problems. Like difficulty in breathing, tightness in chest, etc. Hence, it is very important to check the preservatives used and have them in moderate amounts.